Early on, Ebola can feel like the flu or other illnesses.
Symptoms show up 2 to 21 days after infection and usually include:. As the disease gets worse, it causes bleeding inside the body, as well as from the eyes , ears , and nose. Some people will vomit or cough up blood , have bloody diarrhea , and get a rash. Sometimes it's hard to tell if a person has Ebola from the symptoms alone. Doctors may test to rule out other diseases like cholera or malaria. Treatment includes an experimental serum that destroys infected cells.
The best way to avoid catching the disease is by not traveling to areas where the virus is found. Subsection 3 1 b acknowledges that a rehabilitative response to youth crime is not always appropriate, and allows for the protection of society:. Society must, although it has the responsibility to take reasonable measures to prevent criminal conduct by young persons, be afforded the necessary protection from illegal behaviour Bala, This subsection has been interpreted in support of the pre-trial detention of youth suspects and for dispositions involving incarceration.
However, the efficacy of incarceration is questioned as "the literature on the size of sanction suggests that this is likely to be irrelevant to whether or not a young person commits an offence…[as] changing levels of punishment will not change youth crime" Doob et al. The recognition of police discretion concerning non-enforcement practices is explicit in Section 3 1 d :. Where it is not inconsistent with the protection of society, taking no measures or taking measures other than judicial proceedings under this Act should be considered for dealing with young persons who have committed offences Bala, This subsection has particular relevance to police and Crown prosecutors, who are responsible for the decision to charge.
It provides a reaffirmation of the common law right of police officers not to charge. This is particularly important in view of the fact that each jurisdiction in Canada has its own statute that defines the obligations, structure and governance of police services, in some of which there is specific reference to a police officer's common law duty to enforce the law e. This subsection promotes either alternative measures or "no measures in circumstances where societal interests do not demand judicial proceedings" Hornick et al.
This provision has also been used as the basis for provincial legislation to create diversion programs Platt, However, substantial variation exists in terms of the amount of funding diversion programs receive and the types of cases referred Bala, The actions of police officers may reflect this subsection, as they balance the "protection of society" against the desirability of non-intrusiveness when making decisions concerning formal, informal or no action, and whether to detain.
Police understandings of the concept of the protection of society may reflect the values of the community in which they work, and can result in jurisdictional variations in charging. Subsections 3 e and 3 g recognize the same rights and freedoms for young persons as for adults, and accord them additional rights. These subsections acknowledge the vulnerability of young people within the context of criminal process. For example, under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, adults have the right to retain counsel in relation to certain criminal proceedings. The YOA guarantees this right, as well as the payment for legal services if the youth is unable to obtain or afford legal representation Bala, These sections serve as a preface to some more specific provisions contained in the YOA, such as Section 56 that pertains to the taking of statements by police.
Section 4 allows a youth to be diverted from formal processing to alternative measures programs, provided that he or she accepts responsibility for commission of the offence and freely consents to waive the right to a trial, and that there is sufficient evidence to prosecute. The nature of these programs varies across jurisdictions in terms of application pre-charge, post-charge , eligibility types of offences, prior record , the degree of record-keeping, and availability scope.
Under Section 56 2 , the YOA makes unique provisions for taking oral and written statements by police above and beyond those articulated in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The extensive provisions include:. Spontaneous oral statements are considered admissible only when the person in authority does not have the opportunity to advise the youth of his or her rights Section 56 2 and the statement was voluntary Section 53 3.
This may occur when a young person simply blurts out a statement at the scene. Sections 56 2 and 3 pose various difficulties for police officers. For example, it could be argued that section 56 3 does not apply when a young person, who is not a potential suspect or when arrest is not anticipated, makes a statement Platt, Structural interventions seek to address underlying factors that make individuals or groups vulnerable to HIV infection.
These can be social, economic, political or environmental. HIV-related vulnerabilities are fuelled by inequalities and prejudices entrenched within the legal, social and economic structures of society. For example, laws that criminalise same-sex relationships often hinder men who have sex with men from accessing condoms. By successfully addressing these structural barriers, individuals are empowered and able to access HIV prevention services. Empowering women and girls, young people and people from groups most affected by HIV with the agency to claim their rights, receive a quality education, enjoy healthy lives and take measures to protect themselves from HIV is a requisite component of combination HIV prevention.
Yet structural interventions are much more difficult to implement because they attempt to deal with deep-rooted socio-economic issues such as poverty, gender inequality and social marginalisation. They can also be reliant on the cooperation of governments to achieve law or policy reforms. Can you support us and protect our future? Crucially, these interventions must be targeted at high prevalence regions or 'hot spots' and meet the needs of high-risk groups. Evidence suggests that people-centred, combination approaches work.
The UNAIDS Fast-Track strategy identifies a number of ways to increase the effectiveness of combination prevention efforts, a few of which are discussed below. Getting the support of political leaders, religious leaders and other influential figures in society can help to raise awareness of, and strengthen global political commitment to, HIV prevention.
However, this must be followed by strengthened financial commitment.
Indeed, investments in HIV prevention have slightly increased over time in a number of countries. However, more rapid increases in expenditures for HIV treatment translate to a declining trend in the percentage of total resources dedicated to prevention services.
Domestic spending on prevention is also lacking. The majority of resources for services focused on key populations come from international donors, with exceptions such as Brazil, Mexico and a few countries in Asia and the Pacific.
However, this does not address the need for sustainable, country-owned financing sources for those groups most affected by HIV. Over the past decade, a number of new HIV prevention tools have emerged that increase the effectiveness of these services. For example, even in low-income countries, mobile phone ownership and internet access have grown considerably and have changed how people interact and receive information.
Taking advantage of this shift, Young Africa Live enables young people to talk about topics that affect their daily lives including sex, HIV, rape and gender issues, as well as where to get tested for HIV. The platform now has 1.
Facility-based village health workers were trained to log patient information and text message preferences into a mobile application. Through the app, patients then received automated, coded medication and appointment reminders on their mobile phones at their preferred time and frequency. Village health workers also supported treatment if required.
Which of the following was NOT an example of an early crime prevention program? -the Chicago Area Tertiary prevention deals primarily with: prediction. Start studying Crime Prevention. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with Tertiary prevention deals primarily with what? Surveillance. The Code of Hammurabi.
Between April and August , this system successfully delivered 39, messages to individuals, including patients and treatment supporters. Uptake of the SMS intervention was high, with The intervention improved the quality of health communication between patients, treatment supporters, and providers and it was found to be a low-tech, user-friendly intervention, which was acceptable to patients and healthcare providers.
However, HIV-related stigma and technical challenges were still identified as potential barriers to adherence. Implementing long-term, combination prevention programmes that genuinely meet the needs of people most affected by HIV and that are of sufficient scale, coupled with more people living with HIV being virally suppressed, is key to reducing the number of new HIV infections occurring each year.
Powerful prevention tools exist and it is down to international and domestic responses to use these interventions in combination, targeted at the people who need them most. Quickening the pace for essential HIV combination prevention and treatment approaches will limit the epidemic to more manageable levels and enable countries to move towards eliminating HIV as a public health threat. Yet HIV prevention coverage remains fragmented.
The scale-up of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has not been matched in other key prevention areas, especially when it comes to financing and implementing programmes for key affected populations, leaving sizeable gaps in services. A key issue here is that many sets of targets are still incomplete, and some baselines, population size estimates and targets are missing. Better, more accurate data is needed to fill this important gap. The key to this will be more meaningful engagement with civil society and key population organisations, and use of their expertise, in order to help estimate population sizes and set targets, and in designing, implementing and monitoring prevention programmes.
Individual countries have shown that prevention programmes can be brought to scale within a few years. Similarly, Mozambique has increased the number of VMMCs performed from just in to more than , in , and India has shown how approaches that engage beneficiaries in their design and implementation can result in a marked decrease in new infections. However, there is a significant lack of international and domestic funds for HIV prevention, a situation that looks to be getting worse. In addition, many legal, political and structural factors that drive HIV transmission continue to exist, and in many countries there remains a lack of nationally-implemented combination prevention services for adolescent girls, young women and key populations.
If this happens, the world faces a heavy human and financial toll. IPPF ' Putting sexuality back into Comprehensive Sexuality Education - tips for delivering sex-positive workshops for young people '[pdf].